Day 2 :
Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, USA
Time : 10:00-10:45
Beverly A Rzigalinski is a Professor of Pharmacology at the Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine in Blacksburg, VA. She holds joint appointments in the Virginia Tech/Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering, and the Virginia-Maryland Coll. of Veterinary Medicine. She has received her BS in Biology from Rutgers University, an MS in Biochemistry and Toxicology New York University, and a PhD in Biochemistry and Pharmacology from Eastern Virginia Medical School and Old Dominion University. She is recognized internationally for her work in nanomedicine and her seminars in the field have been translated into over 10 languages.
To quote the physicist Richard Feynman, “At the atomic level, we have new kinds of forces and new kinds of possibilities, new kinds of effects” which are evolving as the frontier of nanotechnology. Although the principles of nanoscience apply to the biological realm, application of nanotechnology to medicine is just beginning. Nanoparticles represent catalytic entities that differ substantially from what we traditionally think of as drugs. Their catalytic activities result from actions at the quantum level – providing novel strategies for treatment and prevention of disease. Of particular interest are redox active nanoparticles such as cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONPs), which are regenerative free radical scavengers under biological conditions, where elevated oxidative stress is a key component of disease. Increased oxidative stress and free radical production are associated with many neurodegenerative conditions, including aging, trauma, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and numerous others. Our work demonstrates that CeONPs are potent free radical scavengers in tissue culture and Drosophila models. Nanoparticles increased the lifespan of mixed brain cells and neurons in culture and protected cells from free radical-mediated injury. At the organism level, CeONOs increased mean and maximum life span in Drosophila and improved motor function during aging. CeONPs enhanced survival of Drosophila after exposure to paraquat (which induces death via free radical production) and enhanced functional recovery. CeONPs were also neuroprotective in pre-clinical mammalian models for traumatic brain injury and Parkinson’s disease, and improved functional outcome. This work suggests that CeONPs are a potent disease-modifying nanopharmaceutical for future treatment of neurodegenerative disease.
Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, France
Lavinia Balan has obtained her PhD degree from the University Henry Poincaré in Nancy, France, in 2005. Her PhD was devoted to the elaboration of an original material for the anode of Li-ion batteries. After a Post-doctorate in Orleans and then in Mulhouse, she has joined the Department of Photochemistry (DPG) of Mulhouse in 2006 as a CNRS Senior Researcher. She has opened a new field of research in this laboratory, viz. the photoassisted synthesis of metal nanoparticles and metal-polymer nanocomposite materials. Since December 2009, she has joined the Institute of Materials Science of Mulhouse (IS2M) CNRS-LRC 7228. Her lines of research are concerned with (photo) chemical synthesis of metal/polymer nanocomposites and design, customization and characterization of metal nanoparticles and nanocrystals (quantum dots) suited for advanced applications in the fields of optic, photonics, plasmonics, information storage and imaging or biology.
Metal nanoparticles show potential applications in various fields including but not limited to medicine, catalysis, optics or electronics. Combining the intrinsic characteristics of metal nanoparticles with those of polymers opens up new vistas in the quest for materials with very innovative properties. In this context, metal/polymer nanocomposite materials were developed through a simple, rapid and green approach based on the photoreduction of a metal precursor and polymerization of a blend of monomers. Silver nanofilms were directly generated on a variety of substrates through this environmentally friendly approach, which uses a simple UV source does not involve any reducing or stabilizing agent and does not require any thermal activation. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles were generated from a hydroalcoholic AgNO3 solution or an acrylate monomer formulation, directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps. The metal nanoparticles and metal/polymer nanocomposites film obtained in this way were characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver ions concentration and nature of the free radical generator) on their formation was evaluated. This photoinduced synthesis offers substantial advantages since it combines the characteristic features of light activation i.e. versatility and convenience of the process, high spatial resolution and reaction controllability (intensity and wavelength), with the simplicity of the colloidal approach. Moreover, the use of amplitude masks or interferometric devices to shape up the light beam used to induce the photoreduction of silver cations provides a very powerful and versatile means to spatially manipulate metal nanoparticles.